34 In accordance with those general principles, the agreement governs the scope and use of intellectual property rights. Protection applies to copyrights, trademarks of all products of at least, including books, films, graphics, geographical indications, industrial design, patents and other undisclosed information. One of the most controversial segments concerns patents relating to genetically modified products and living organisms. Article 27, now famous, allows countries to exclude from patentability inventions that may disturb public order or morality, including environmental degradation. It also states that “members can also exclude from patentability: a 2003 agreement relaxed domestic market requirements and allows developing countries to export to other countries where there is a national health problem as long as the exported medicines are not part of a trade or industrial policy.  Drugs exported under such a regime may be packaged or coloured differently to prevent them from harming the markets of industrialized countries. 4 This general harmonisation focuses on patentability. Countries are gradually complying with the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. Recently, India, which has invoked opposition to the patenting of life forms, has aligned Indian law.
In April 1999, the Indian Parliament amended the Patents Act to comply with the TRIPS Agreement. According to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government, a strengthened patent regime was needed to help Indian scientists and protect their inventions. In Parliament, resistance came exclusively from the communist and left-wing parties, which staged riots to hold back their protest against the “recolonization” of India by transnational parties. The NGO Gene Campaign organized a series of meetings on intellectual property rights (IPR) in the major cities of southern Kerala, with a high literacy rate of ninety percent. Similar meetings were held in the northern states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and ended with mass signature campaigns to give a voice to the poor who are likely to be most affected by the new laws: “New laws should allow people to access basic resources and enable and protect food and health security, facilitate rather than hinder.” said Suman Sahai, the leader of the Gene campaign. More than 1,500 groups across the country have also launched a Gandhi-style Bija Satyagraha (Legal Seed Demand), which calls for civil disobedience to laws that “threaten livelihoods, biodiversity, food security and health security.” TRIPS conditions that impose more standards beyond TRIPS were also discussed.  These free trade agreements contain conditions that limit the ability of governments to create competition for generic drug manufacturers. In particular, the United States has been criticized for promoting protection far beyond the standards prescribed by TRIPS. . . .